Articles - Carcinomas: Types, treatment and how to raise funds to fight them
31st May 2024

Carcinomas: Types, treatment and how to raise funds to fight them

The battle against carcinoma is still one of the biggest challenges for modern medicine. It is a disease with diverse manifestations. Cancer cells are aggressive and grow rapidly, leading to the formation of tumours that often pose a serious threat to the lives of cancer patients. Despite medical advances, the road to healing is often difficult and fraught with uncertainty. This is why public engagement and awareness play a crucial role in supporting those affected by this devastating disease.

Start a campaign and help raise awareness, or check out all the campaigns and help someone battling this insidious disease.

Recognizing the symptoms of different types of cancers is not only essential for medical professionals, but also for the general public. Also, solidarity and collective efforts to raise funds for treatment open up new opportunities to support affected people and their families.

What is cancer and what are the differences between tumour, sarcoma, carcinoma and adenocarcinoma

Familiarity with the medical terms associated with cancer is key to awareness and successfully fighting it.


Carcinoma is a form of cancer that develops in the skin or in the tissues that surround or make up internal organs. It is the most common type of cancer. Terms used in the medical literature include other terms such as 'tumour' and 'sarcoma', each with its own unique definition and specificities.


The term 'tumour' refers to any abnormal mass or growth, but it should be borne in mind that not every tumour is associated with cancer. Tumors are classified as benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).


Sarcomas are divided into different subtypes depending on the type of tissue affected, such as osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and leiomyosarcoma (smooth muscle cancer). They can develop in different parts of the body and are often diagnosed in advanced stages due to their hidden development.


Adenocarcinoma is a form of carcinoma that develops in the epithelial tissue of organs responsible for secreting various substances such as hormones or mucus. This type of carcinoma is typical of organs such as the breast, prostate, lungs and colon.

Understanding the differences between these terms is important not only for medical professionals, but also for patients. This is because an accurate diagnosis can have a significant impact on the choice of appropriate treatment.

Benign carcinoma

Although it may seem controversial, there are also benign forms of carcinomas that are confined to a specific area and do not spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. Such carcinomas usually carry a lower risk than malignant cancers. They can often be successfully removed by surgery. However, regular monitoring of their development is important as there are rare cases in which they may evolve into malignant growths.

Other types of carcinomas: basal cell, squamous cell, squamous cell

  • Basal cell carcinoma is the most common type of skin cancer that develops in the layers of the dermis when exposed to the sun. It develops slowly and rarely metastasizes (spreads) to other parts of the body.

  • Spinocellular carcinoma also develops on the skin or mucous membranes, but it is more prone to spread and can be more aggressive than basal cell carcinoma.

  • Squamous cell carcinoma often occurs in organs such as the lung, head and neck. It can spread faster than other types of carcinomas and requires timely and effective treatment.

Treatment of carcinomas, tumours and other cancers

Treating various cancers, including carcinomas, tumors and others, is a complex process that requires an individualized approach, careful planning and often a combination of different methods.

The main methods of cancer treatment that medicine applies today are:

  1. Surgery: Surgery is a commonly used method to remove the tumor and surrounding tissue. It can be effective for many types of cancer, especially those that have not metastasized.

  2. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy involves the use of drugs that kill cancer cells or stop their growth and spread. This method may be used before surgery to reduce the size of the tumor or after surgery to destroy any remaining cancer cells. Chemotherapy is also used as the main treatment for most cancers that have spread beyond their original location.

  3. Radiotherapy: Radiotherapy uses high-energy rays to destroy cancer cells or limit their growth. It is administered both from external sources and by radioactive substances implanted near the tumor (brachytherapy). Radiotherapy is particularly useful for treating specific areas and is often combined with surgery and/or chemotherapy to achieve an optimal result.

  4. Targeted therapy: Targeted therapy is a relatively new approach that focuses on specific molecules and mechanisms that are important for the growth and development of cancer cells. By blocking these molecules, targeted therapy aims to stop the spread of cancer while reducing damage to normal cells.

  5. Immunotherapy: Immunotherapy seeks to strengthen or restore the immune system's ability to recognize and destroy cancer cells. This method may involve the use of antibodies that bind to specific proteins on cancer cells and stimulate the immune system to attack the cancer cells.

Despite the wide range of treatments available, the key to successfully tackling cancer often lies in early diagnosis and an individualised approach. Modern medicine continues to develop and test new and more effective strategies to combat different types of carcinomas.

Diagnosis of carcinoma: Methods and approaches

The diagnosis of carcinoma is a critical stage in the selection of treatment approaches that allows physicians to determine the presence, type, and stage of the disease. This is important not only for planning the most appropriate treatment strategy, but also for predicting the likely course of the disease. Here are a few of the main methods for diagnosing carcinoma:

Physical examination and history

The first step usually involves a detailed discussion of the patient's medical history, including symptoms, previous illnesses and family burden. The physical examination may detect possible signs of cancer, such as enlarged lymph nodes, increases or changes in organ size, skin changes, or palpable masses.

Laboratory tests

Blood tests and other biochemical tests examine abnormal levels of certain substances in the blood. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests are used to diagnose prostate cancer, while measuring CA-125 levels can signal ovarian cancer.

Basic imaging tests

Imaging methods play a key role in detecting cancer and assessing its spread. These include:

  • X-rays

  • Computed tomography

  • Magnetic resonance imaging

  • Positron emission tomography (PET)


A biopsy is a procedure in which a small piece of tissue is taken for microscopic examination. It is the "gold standard" for diagnosing carcinomas because it allows the pathologist to see if there are cancer cells in the sample and determine their type. Biopsies can be performed in a variety of ways, including needle aspiration, incisional biopsy or excisional biopsy.


Endoscopic procedures use thin, flexible tubes equipped with a camera and light to visualize the inside of organs and tissues. This method is particularly useful for examining the gastrointestinal tract, lungs and other areas where cancer may be suspected.

Despite advances in medical technology, early detection of cancer remains a challenge. Regular participation in screening programs and careful monitoring of one's own health are key to early diagnosis and successful treatment of cancer.

How to get financial help with the cost of cancer treatment

The financial side of cancer treatment can be a burden for many, especially in cases where insurance does not cover all costs or when we do not have the necessary funds. In times like these, crowdfunding platforms like PavelAndreev.BG offer a valuable fundraising opportunity that can help. Here are a few steps and recommendations for starting a successful campaign:

  • Tell the patient's story. A detailed description of the personal story, the battle with the disease and how treatment will improve quality of life can motivate people to donate.

  • Describe why you need funds urgently: The description should include information about why the funds are critically needed now. Indicate the specific treatments, surgeries or medical equipment that are needed.

  • Make a sample list of costs: Transparency is important. Providing a detailed list of costs for treatments, medications, transportation and other related necessities helps donors understand where their money is going.

  • Launch the campaign: Once you've prepared the story and list of expenses, it's time to launch the campaign. Make sure to check all available options to increase its visibility, including sharing on social media: Facebook, Instagram, X, LinkedIn, YouTube, TikTok;

  • Active participation and updates: maintaining an active dialogue with supporters and providing regular updates on the patient's condition and fundraising progress increases trust and support.

Solidarity and willingness to help play a key role in successful fundraising. The PavelAndreev.BG platform gives everyone the opportunity to contribute to improving the life of someone in need of treatment.

The fight against cancer is a complex and multi-layered process that requires not only medical intervention, but also broad public support. The PavelAndreev.BG crowdfunding platform and social networking groups offer a powerful tool to mobilize resources and create a community that stands firmly behind those fighting this serious disease. Solidarity and joint efforts can make a significant difference to the lives of people affected by cancer. Let's be a part of this change and together help all who face this ordeal. Start a campaign now or donate to support people suffering from cancer.

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